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The essential A to Z of Spanish Christmas vocabulary

The Local Spain
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The essential A to Z of Spanish Christmas vocabulary
Get your Spanish Christmas vocab up to scratch with our A to Z guide. (Photo by Josep LAGO / AFP)

If you're going to be spending Christmas in Spain, you may want to brush up on this essential "Navidad" vocab to show off your festive language skills.


A: We kick off with the evergreen Christmas terms árbol de Navidad (Christmas tree) and ángel de Navidad (Christmas angel).

B: Some important Christmas words in Spanish starting with “b” are Belén (meaning Bethlehem or nativity scene), a common Christmas decoration in Spanish households and public places, as well as the verb brindar (to toast), which can be referred to as un brindis (a toast). Get ready for plenty of those this Christmas!

No Christmas in Spain is complete without a nativity scene, such as this record-breaking belén in Alicante. Photo: José Jordán/AFP

C: There are a handful of Christmassy words in Spanish starting with C, from the cabalgatas (parades) of the Three Wise Men on January 5th, to the campanadas (how the Spanish refer to the bell chimes at midnight on New Year’s Eve).

It’s traditional for everyone to get a cotillón (a bag of goodies which includes a party hat, a miniature trumpet and confetti) to ring in the New Year and to toast with Cava, a sparkling wine which the EU doesn’t allow Spain to market as Spanish champagne, even though it’s fairly similar.

There's also the cesta navideña (Christmas hamper) that Spanish workers have a legal right to get.


D: The décimo is a €20 ticket for Spain’s Christmas Lottery which gives you the chance of winning the top prize of €400,000. It’s what most Spaniards will buy for Spain’s two main lotteries.

E: There’s la estrella de Navidad (Christmas star) that goes on top of Christmas tree and the weird Els Enfarinats festival in Ibi (Alicante) on December 28th, where a mock coup d'etat featuring lots of flour and sparklers takes over the town.

It may not seem very Christmassy, but Spain's Els Enfarinats festival takes place every December 28th. Photo: Jaime Reina/AFP

F: One of the most common expressions you’ll hear this Christmas is felices fiestas (happy holidays). You can also expect to get the fright of your life when neighbours let off fuegos artificiales (fireworks), which may lead you to knock over your “flor de Pascua”, the poinsettia plant that’s used in Christmas floral displays in Spain and elsewhere.

G: Perhaps the strangest reference to a lottery draw anywhere is Spain’s El Gordo (the fat one) which takes place on December 22nd and which millions of Spaniards take part in.If you win the jackpot, you have to say me tocó El Gordo, which in the most literal sense means ‘the fat man touched me’. Don’t worry, they’ll know exactly what you really mean. 

Two delighted lottery winners after being 'touched' by El Gordo. Photo: Cristina Quicler/AFP

H: Snow in Spain isn’t guaranteed at Christmas but if there’s una helada (a frost or freeze) you could end up with a blanca Navidad (white Christmas). Just be careful with hielo en la carretera (ice on the road).

I: December 28th marks El Día de los Inocentes, Spain’s version of April Fools’ Day.

J: We may often forget but Christmas is all about celebrating the birth of Jesucristo (Jesus Christ) or el niño Jesús (baby Jesus) or just Jesús, as 275,000 Spanish men are called (something people from English-speaking countries can find rather strange).

K: K is kilogramo, the measure you’ll be using when spending a small fortune on seafood and other food this Christmas, as prices are always marked up the closer you get to the date. To find out if you’re paying the fair amount, check the price listings by Spain's consumer watchdog OCU here.


L: There’s the loterías de Navidad (Christmas lotteries) which we mentioned earlier are a crucial part of Christmas in Spain, and there are langostinos (king prawns), a favourite on Christmas dinner tables.

M: Langostinos are just one of the many mariscos (seafood) that Spaniards eat over Christmas. There’s also the misa del gallo, the Catholic Mass celebrated around midnight on Christmas Eve in Spain (meaning ‘the cockerel’s mass). There's also muérdago, mistletoe in Spanish, although on a normal year you won't need this as an excuse to receive a kiss from a Spaniard at Christmas.

Marisco is a must at Christmas in Spain. Photo: Mogens Petersen/Pixabay

 N: If you need to know one word it’s la Navidad, which of course means Christmas. Spaniards also use the plural (Navidades) to refer to the whole Christmas period. And two important dates on the calendar are “Nochebuena” (meaning ‘good night’ but referring to Christmas Eve and “Nochevieja” (old night but really meaning New Year’s Eve).

Ñ: There aren’t many words in Spanish starting with “ñ” let alone Christmas ones, but ñora, a type of dried pepper that has no direct translation into English, is a good one to know and to actually have in your kitchen this Christmas. It’s often used for pimentón (paprika), a staple of Spanish food.

O: Did you know the Basque people have their own version of Santa Claus called the Olentzero? You can find out more about him here. That word technically isn’t Spanish but Euskera, so we have another Christmassy word that is – obsequio – which is a slightly more formal way of saying gift or present in Spanish.


P: P is of course for Papá Noel (Santa Claus) and for polvorón, a very powdery and crumbly shortbread that’s eaten a lot at Christmas in Spain. Keep some water handy, you’ll need it!

Q: Q is for queso (cheese), which is eaten in abundance at Christmas in Spain. If you want some ‘cheespiration’, here's our guide to Spanish cheese.

R: There’s the Reyes Magos (the Three Wise Men) who are bigger than Santa in Spain and give kids the bulk of their Christmas presents on January 6th, and the Roscón de Reyes, a bagel-like cake with a hole in the middle of it, candied fruit and a metal figure hidden in the dough helps Spanish dentists cash in after Christmas. Oh, R is also for regalos - presents.

Spain's Reyes Magos are called Gaspar, Melchior and Baltasar. Photo: Josep Lago/AFP

S: S is for solomillo, a good quality sirloin steak Spaniards often choose as part of their Christmas menu.

T: Spain’s main sweet Christmas treat is turrón, a nougat-style chocolate bar that comes in a wide variety of flavours and styles.


U: Spaniards scoff down twelve uvas (grapes) every time the bells chime at New Year’s. The tradition is more challenging than it seems and can be a bit dangerous, so millions of uvas are now sold by the dozen in tins, pre-peeled and in their juice to avoid any nasty surprises.

V: Spain’s traditional Christmas songs are known as villancicos, folk-style tunes which often feature high-pitched children’s voices singing about fish drinking river water, a donkey and a drummer.

Z: We finish off this A to Z of Spanish Christmas vocab with the zambomba, a strange friction instrument which is often played during Navidad in Spain.  


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