What is 'Dos de Mayo' and why does Madrid celebrate it?

Felicity Hughes
Felicity Hughes
What is 'Dos de Mayo' and why does Madrid celebrate it?
Goya’s "Charge of the Mamelukes" depicts Napoleon’s fearsome Mameluke troops cutting down madrileños with curved swords in Puerta del Sol. Painting: Francisco de Goya, 1814 (Museo del Prado).

While all of Spain usually enjoys a holiday on May 1st, madrileños also get a day off on May 2nd. Here's the fascinating story behind this day of celebration in the Spanish capital, and what it has to do with Napoleon.


On May 2nd, 1808 the last remaining members of Spain’s royal family were getting ready to be shipped off to France.

Fearing perhaps that if they didn’t keep on Napoleon’s good side they’d wind up (just as their French cousins had) with their severed heads rolling around an executioner’s basket, the Bourbons barely made a peep to protest the move while madrileños were encouraged to do the same with the authorities instructing citizens to exercise restraint and to treat the French forces with respect.

On the face of it, it appeared that Spain had fallen to French rule with barely a whimper of protest. That Napoleon had – by gaining permission from the Spanish king to march his troops into the country on the pretext of invading Portugal – subjugated an entire nation with a cheap trick. Nothing seemed to stand in his way. Nothing that is except for an unruly gang of ordinary madrileños who appeared outside the palace demanding that the royals remain. Stunned, the French forces unwisely opened fire sparking off a bloody war of independence that was to bring the French emperor to his knees.

Though the French were convinced a conspiracy was afoot, one of the most surprising things about the uprising on May 2nd is that it was not orchestrated by anyone, rather that it was a spontaneous action made by a fiercely patriotic populace who simply refused to tolerate the idea of French rule. Incredible when you consider the fact that they were facing trained heavily-armed French troops without any support from the Spanish army – who had been given strict orders not to intervene.

Despite being outgunned, the citizens of Madrid fought with sticks, hoes, and even pitchforks all over the city. Huge battles raged in the streets and even women got involved throwing whatever heavy objects came to hand down onto the heads of French soldiers. It would, of course, be a losing battle. In Goya’s "Charge of the Mamelukes" (pictured above), you can get an idea of the carnage that ensued; it shows Napoleon’s fearsome Mameluke troops cutting down madrileños with curved swords in Puerta del Sol.


Still, the reckless bravery displayed by Madrid’s working class majos was what finally inspired some Spanish soldiers to act. Captain Pedro Velarde along with Luis Daoíz defied orders and led a group of soldiers out to the Monteleón barracks where they defended their position against the French. They were assisted by ordinary men and even women, who joined in a hopeless battle to defend the barracks. One such hero was Clara del Rey - a 42-year-old mother of three who was killed in the uprising.

Refusing to give into French demands to surrender, the Spanish made their last stand in an archway to the barracks before being killed. All that remains of this building today is this very arch which sits in the middle of Plaza Dos de Mayo behind a statue of Daoíz and Vellarde.

Archive image of  Daoíz and Vellarde statue in front of the arch in Plaza Dos de Mayo. Photo: AFP

Other heroes of the uprising included Manuela Malasaña- a 17-year-old seamstress - who was shot the next day for defying the French and whose memory was so well-loved that the whole area of Maravillas was renamed in honour of her bravery.

Along with Manuela, around 400 or so Spanish were executed on May 3rd, 90 percent of whom were ordinary private citizens. It was their actions that inspired the military to take up arms against the occupying forces eventually leading to the liberation of the country in 1814 and the restoration of the lily-livered Ferdinand VII to the throne. Ferdinand’s subsequent betrayal of Spain’s working classes is an even more tragic story perhaps better left for another day…

How is it marked today?

Madrileños are given a bank holiday for Dos de Mayo, conveniently coming just after the Workers Day National holiday on May 1st.

Schools will be closed on Friday for a 'puente' bridging the two bank holidays of Wednesday and Thursday with the weekend. Although many see it as an opportunity to escape the capital for the weekend, there are plenty of festivities planned for those who want to stay.


The streets of Malasaña will be filled with art, music, dancing and events to mark Dos de Mayo including stages set up in Plaza Commendadores, Conde Duque, Plaza San Ildefonso. For a full schedule of events running from Tuesday evening through to Sunday, check HERE

A version of this article first appeared on The Making of Madrid, a blog about the history of the city. The author, Felicity Hughes, runs The Making of Madrid Tours

READ ALSO: Off the beaten track: Eight Madrid museums you've probably never heard of




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