Bites from spiders are rare in Spain and there have been zero documented cases of someone dying from a spider bite in the country. There are however a few venomous spiders here, with the two you should be aware of being the brown recluse spider and the black widow spider.
Recluse spider – The recluse spider (pictured above) is the species that in 2021 bit a British tourist in Ibiza, causing him to lose two fingers as a result. They are quite large and brown and have a distinct violin-shaped marking on their backs. The bites are often painful and itchy and sometimes develop into an open sore, but according to a hospital spokesperson who treated the tourist, this type of spider doesn’t usually cause such serious injury. It could be worse if the sore becomes infected or if you’re allergic to the venom. They are most common in Andalusia, but can be found elsewhere.
Black widow spider – Black widow spiders are Spain’s most dangerous spider and can be identified by the distinctive red hourglass shape on their backs. Their venom attacks the nervous system and can cause fever, blindness, vomiting and asphyxiation. However, their venom is a lot less dangerous than the black widows found in the US, so these extreme reactions are unlikely. They are most commonly found in Almería, Aragón, Andalusia and Valencia.
Photo: Ken-ichi Ueda/Wikipedia
There are around 13 types of snakes in Spain, but only five of these are venomous. Snake bites are rare in Spain. According to a scientific report by J. P. Chippaux, it is estimated that between one and seven people are killed by snake bites per year in Europe.
There are no snakes that are native to the Canary Islands (even though some were brought over as pets and escaped), but snakes can be found throughout the mainland.
Seoane’s viper – Seoane’s vipers can have a brown zigzag pattern on their backs or can be very dark grey or black. They mainly live in Galicia, Castilla y León, the Cantabrian coast and the Basque Country. According to Iberian Vipers, bites from these snakes is not normally life-threatening, although could be for the elderly, children or people with certain illnesses.
Photo: Benny Trapp/Wikipedia
Asp viper – The Asp viper is brown with black stripes and is found throughout the Pyrenees. In rare cases, bites from these snakes can be fatal if left untreated.
Photo: Werner Seiler/Wikipedia
Snub-nosed or Lataste’s viper – The snub-nosed viper is so-called because it has a kind of triangular-shaped horn on the end of its nose. They are greyish in colour with a black or brown zigzag pattern down their body. They’re found throughout Spain in dry and rocky habitats.
Photo: Tim Vickers/Wikipedia
False smooth snake – False snakes are small and grey with brown spots and have smooth scales. Their venom is very mild and bites from them are extremely rare.
Photo: Bernard Dupont/Wikipedia
Montpellier Snake – The Montpellier snake is very long and is blue or greenish with a white underbelly. Bites from this type of snake are rare because of the location of its fangs, but if you are bitten, the venom is quite mild, and while it may be very painful, is unlikely to cause serious health issues.
Photo: Diego Delso/Wikipedia
Jellyfish sting thousands of people every year in Spanish waters, more during years when the beaches are invaded by them, however, most don’t cause any severe health issues. The jellyfish below are the most venomous ones in Spain that you should look out for.
Purple Stinger – These jellyfish are purple or mauve in colour with a bell-shaped umbrella covering. Their tentacles can reach up to three metres long. Stings from these jellyfish can be nasty and painful, often leaving scars, but they are not lethal.
Photo: Hans Hillewaert/Wikipedia
Flower hat jellyfish – These creatures are usually white or clear with pink-tipped worm-like tentacles. Their stings cause a rash which is rarely fatal to humans, however this species did cause one death in the 1970s.
Photo: Chris Favero/Wikipedia
Sea wasp jellyfish – Also known as the European box jellyfish, this species is typically translucent. It is not as common as some of the others on the list, and its sting is nowhere near as dangerous as the deadly Australian box jellyfish.
Photo: Guido Gautsch/Wikipedia
Portuguese Man O’ War – The Portuguese Man O’ War is actually not technically a jellyfish, even though it looks like one and – according to National Geographic – is in fact made up of lots of smaller organisms. It is one of the most deadly creatures on our list and its stings can be life-threatening.
Unfortunately, they have become more prevalent in European waters over the last decade. They are blue and purple in colour and float on top of the water instead of underneath. Watch out though because their tentacles can reach over 30ft long, so if you spot one and you think you’re far enough away from it, you should still get out of the water.
Scorpions can be found throughout Spain. The two venomous species that can be found here are the Yellow Scorpion (pictured below), also sometimes referred to as the Mediterranean scorpion and the European yellow-tailed scorpion, so-called because it’s black with a yellow tail. Their stings, while painful, are unlikely to cause any serious damage.
Photo: Bernard Dupont/Wikipedia
Caterpillars and Centipedes
Most caterpillars and centipedes are completely harmless in Spain, but there are two which can cause reactions if touched. These are the hairy pine processionary caterpillars, which can cause a rash and even temporary blindness.
The Megarian banded centipede is common in Spain and is black and yellow in colour. Its bite is painful, but it is very rare for it to cause any serious health issues.
Photo: Wikipedia/ ערן פינקל
Ticks and mosquitoes
Other species you need to be aware of that are not venomous themselves, but can carry potentially harmful diseases are ticks and mosquitoes. During the summer of 2020, there was an outbreak of the West Nile virus in Andalusia, which is carried by mosquitoes.