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EXPLAINED: How Britons can live and work in Spain after Brexit

It’s become considerably harder for UK nationals wanting to move to Spain to do so now that they need a work permit, but it’s not impossible.

EXPLAINED: How Britons can live and work in Spain after Brexit
Will UK nationals be able to land English teaching jobs in Spain easily? Short answer: Not anymore. Photo: AFP

Since Brexit came into force on January 1 2021, UK nationals no longer have the automatic right to get a job in Spain or anywhere else in the EU. 

They technically don’t have the right to apply for a job or a work visa from Spain either, having to carry out the application from the UK or wherever they are through the Spanish consulate, just as it is for other non-EU nationals.

So what are the options for Britons of working age who want to live and work in Spain and who can’t afford other schemes such as Spain’s non-lucrative visa or the so-called golden visa?

The two main choices are a work permit as an employee and a work permit as a self-employed worker, both of which have their challenges as non-EU citizens.

Work permit as an employee (por cuenta ajena)

In order to be considered for a job as a non-EU national, in the majority of cases the position must be on Spain’s shortage occupation list.

The latest 12-page list published by Spanish employment agency SEPE is downloadable here, but overall the type of positions advertised are 95 percent in the maritime and shipping industry (from naval mechanics to ferry staff, chefs and waiters), as well as sports coaches.

In all fairness, it’s a pretty limited and disheartening list for the majority of British professionals interested in a move to Spain, but it is usually updated every quarter so there could be new positions opening. 

You also have to consider that your employer will have to declare that there was no suitable Spanish or EU candidate available to fill the position. The fact that it’s listed as an ocupación de dificil cobertura (skills shortage) is likely to play in your favour as that gives Spain’s employment ministry no choice but to accept non-EU nationals as candidates.

It is technically possible to apply for a work permit for a job that isn’t on SEPE’s list, but your prospective employer will have to vouch for you further still and really convince Spanish civil servants that there weren’t any local candidates available.

If you have found a job offer that you’re suitable for, you must start your application from the Spanish consulate in the UK or the country in which you live, that’s if there is of course interest on the part of your prospective employer as they have to sponsor you and start the application procedure themselves at their regional department of Labour and Immigration.

So even if you had scouted for work while ‘on holiday’ in Spain and managed to agree to a deal with your future boss, you wouldn’t be able to do any of the paperwork from Spain.

Bear in mind that your proficiency in Spanish may also be a key factor in landing the position and that your profession and qualifications (especially regulated ones like doctors, architects, lawyers) may need to be recognised first as a result of Brexit.

The standard employee’s work permit in Spain lasts one year and can be easily renewed if your work conditions haven’t changed.

What about English teaching after Brexit?

There has been no mention yet by the Spanish government as to whether it will fast-track work permits for British English teachers wanting to come to Spain.

Teaching English is a job that many anglophones in Spain take up as native teachers are very much sought after and the pay isn’t too bad either.

Whereas Britons previously didn’t often need an English teaching qualification to land a job and could simply shop around at language schools and academies in person, this will no longer be as straightforward.

Not impossible however, as the thousands of Americans, Australians, Canadians and other English-speakers who come to Spain to teach each year can vouch for.

The most common work permit used by non-EU English speakers who have completed a TEFL (Teaching English as Foreign Language) is in fact the student visa, which allows them to study at a recognised institution while teaching English on the side.

There is also the “Auxiliares de Conversación” Programme which is run by the Spanish government and sees people from the United States, Canada, New Zealand and Australia recruited to be English language assistants in Spanish schools. Could the UK be joining this list soon?

There are other schemes available to non-EU English teachers so the best place to start is with the language schools and organisations themselves: send out some emails and find out what choices are available to you personally.

Work permit for self-employed people (por cuenta propia)

For UK citizens looking to move to Spain and set up their own business or register as self-employed workers (autónomos), the process is again more complicated after Brexit.

You will have to demonstrate that you have the right qualifications to fulfil said position and prove that you will have sufficient earnings in Spain.

All this will have to feature in a comprehensive business plan which you’ll have to present, covering everything from a marketing plan, the readiness of financing and payments and other information about your operations. Overall, you’ll have to demonstrate that your business will be successful within three years.

If you thought that was tricky, wait for it. You’ll have to send this business plan to one of these five Spanish institutions for their approval:

Unión de Profesionales y Trabajadores Autónomos –  UPTA

Confederación Intersectorial de Autónomos del Estado Español – CIAE

Organización Profesionales autónomos – OPA

Unión de Asociaciones de trabajadores Autónomos y emprendedores-  UATAE

Federación Nacional de Trabajadores Autónomos – ATA

They will review it and send a viability certification if they agree the business will be successful. 

If they approve the business plan, you’ll have to send this together with all the other paperwork to Spain’s Ministry of Labour and Immigration. The permit is also valid for a year but after five you’ll be eligible to a long-term five year work permit.

Again, it could be that you need to have your qualifications verified by the Spanish Ministry of Education if you work in a regulated field, a painstaking process which currently takes two years on average.

 Conclusion

The days of easy work in Spain for UK nationals wanting to move after Brexit are over, we’re afraid. 

It may be that English teaching is still the easiest option for landing a job in Spain post-Brexit, but this will hardly be any consolation for those with careers in other fields.

Spain, with its notoriously high unemployment rate, has a slight protectionist attitude towards its work market, wanting to offer the few jobs that are on offer to its local population or at least EU candidates. This can also be seen in how long they take to process the recognition of qualifications of non-EU nationals, at least four times longer than in Germany or Ireland.

Even if they didn’t have this approach, the country always scores high for quality of life on expat surveys, but not so for career prospects.

READ MORE: The downsides of moving to Spain for work

Sadly, it may be that for many young Britons wanting to live and work in Spain from 2021 onwards, the only way to get their foot in the door is with a very specialised and highly skilled career to offer.

It can still be done, but it will take much longer (maybe even years) for many Brits to find work in Spain if they weren’t here before Brexit.

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SPAIN AND THE US

Spain and the US to exchange more language assistants in bilingualism push    

The governments of Spain and the United States have agreed to recruit more English and Spanish-language assistants from each other’s countries as a means of bolstering bilingual education in the two nations.

Spain and the US to exchange more language assistants in bilingualism push    

Spain’s Education Minister Pilar Alegría and US ambassador to Spain Julissa Reynoso met on Wednesday to sign a memorandum of understanding which will reinforce educational cooperation between the two countries. 

The agreement had been previously signed by Miguel Cardona, the United States Secretary of Education, who tweeted: “This week, alongside [Spanish] Ambassador [Santiago] Cabañas, I signed a memorandum supporting the study of Spanish language & culture in the US, and the study of English in Spain”.

It is in fact a renewal of a memorandum between the United States and Spain which has facilitated mobility of both conversation assistants and students between the two countries in recent years.

The aim of this newest memorandum of understanding is to further strengthen student and teacher exchange programmes and promote bilingual and multicultural teaching in both educational systems.

No exact details have yet been given about how many extra language assistants will be given grants to join the programme. 

Several teacher recruitment sources suggest the current number of North American language assistants (including Canadians) heading to Spain every year is between 2,000 and 2,500. 

The Spanish government has stated that in 2023, this figure will be around 4,500, which represents a considerable increase in the number of US and Canadian citizens who can apply through the NALCAP programme, which stands for North American Language and Culture Assistants in Spain. 

According to Spain’s Foreign Ministry, the following requirements must be met by US candidates in order to participate in the programme:

  • Be a U.S. citizen and have a valid passport
  • Have earned a bachelor’s degree or be currently enrolled as a sophomore, junior or a senior in a bachelor’s programme. Applicants may also have an associate degree or be a community college student in their last semester.
  • Have a native-like level of English
  • Be in good physical and mental health
  • Have a clean background check
  • Be aged 18 – 60.
  • Have at least basic knowledge of Spanish (recommended)

NALCAP recipients receive a monthly stipend of €700 to €1,000 as well as Spanish medical insurance.

Application dates for 2023 are usually announced in late November. See more information on the NALPAC programme for US nationals here

According to The Fulbright Program, one of several US cultural exchange programmes that organises the recruitment of US nationals for Spain: “English Teaching Assistants assist teaching staff at the early childhood, elementary, middle school, high school, vocational and/or university level for up to 16 hours per week, with an additional two hours for planning & coordination meetings. Responsibilities include assistant-teaching, in English, subjects such as social studies, science and technology, art, physical education, and English language.”

READ MORE: The pros and cons of being an English language assistant in Spain

There are also currently more than 1,000 Spanish teachers working as visiting teachers in the United States, Spain’s Moncloa government has said, without adding yet how many more will be recruited in 2023.

Additionally, more than 1,000 North American students now take part in the Spanish Language and Culture Groups managed by the Spanish Education Ministry’s Overseas Education Action (or Acción Educativa Exterior, AEE).  

Canadian applicants can find out more about working as language assistants in Spain by visiting the NALCAP Canada website.

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