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The ultimate guide to buying a leg of 'jamón' in Spain at Christmas

Alex Dunham
Alex Dunham - [email protected]
The ultimate guide to buying a leg of 'jamón' in Spain at Christmas
Spanish Jamón Ibérico (Iberian ham) is the name which is given exclusively to hams from the Iberian pig, or Black Iberian breed. The secret to the Iberian ham taste is down to the pigs' diet of acorns. (Photo by Gabriel BOUYS / AFP)

Cured ham is serious business in Spain and buying a pig’s leg is a quintessential Spanish tradition at Christmas. They’re delicious but can cost hundreds of euros, so knowing your ‘serranos’ from your ‘ibéricos’ is essential to not getting ripped off.


If you didn’t know already, jamón is a national obsession in Spain.

Every year around 6 million cured pigs’ legs are sold here, according to the country’s Association of Iberian Pigs (Asici).

When in 2015 the World Health Organisation found that eating this type of cured or processed meat could cause cancer, Spaniards laughed off the claims and have carried on gobbling down slice after slice ever since.

And even though the wide variety of jamones are a mainstay in the Spanish diet throughout the year, it’s at Christmas when Spaniards truly splurge, traditionally buying a whole leg of cured ham with a specific thin-slicing knife (cuchillo jamonero) and a wooden stand (jamonero).


Prices can go from under €50 to thousands of euros for the crème de la crop (the record is €11,881 for a leg sold at auction in Japan in September 2020).

In between there are dozens of varieties and hundreds of brands to choose from, which can be tough as you want to buy the right one for the price. 

Here we’ll go over some of the main points to keep in mind so by the time you go the butcher’s, you’ll be a jamón connoisseur, or at least a ‘hamficionado’.


Pigs’ legs should come with a label or seal which determines its quality category. 

An important point to mention now is that jamones are usually either jamón serrano or ibérico, with the latter being considered of a higher standard and taste as they’re the Spanish breed of cerdo ibérico (Iberian pig), which eat only acorns that are rich in oleic acid (a healthy fat) and the process by which the meat is cured is more artisanal.

These are Spain’s official categories in descending order for jamones ibéricos, a system introduced in 2014 to prevent people from being ripped off:

Precinto negro (Black seal): 100 percent acorn-fed Iberian pig (jamón de bellota 100% ibérico). The best there is according to the experts.

Precinto rojo (Red seal): acorn-fed Iberian pig (jamón de bellota ibérico) reared in pastures and crossed with Duroc Jersey pigs, therefore of a lower quality.

Precinto verde (Green seal): pigs that haven’t been fed acorns but rather grass in natural pastures and some pig feed, even if they are Iberian pigs. 

Precinto blanco (White seal): Iberian hams which are of varying quality and come from pigs who have been fed pig feed in a more systematic and mechanised way. 

The labels used to distinguish between Spain's different cured hams. Photo: Spanish Ministry of Agriculture

You’ll also notice that the purity of the ibérico is measured with a percentile: 100, 75, 50 percent.

And you don’t necessarily have to cough up hundreds of euros for the very best to notice a difference, as ‘patas’ that are already labelled as 50 percent Iberian are likely to be markedly better than the everyday ‘jamon serrano’ you have on bread with olive oil.


What about getting a leg of jamón serrano?

We’re focusing primarily on jamones ibéricos in this guide as that what’s most traditional to buy at Christmas in Spain and where knowing what you’re buying is most important given the higher price tag.

That doesn’t mean that getting a leg of jamón serrano isn’t a good idea but it falls into a completely different jamón category than ibérico – Duroc or Jamón Blanco as the pigs are regular white pigs that are fed normal pig feed in most cases. 

Jamón serrano is therefore not as sumptuous as ibérico but still pretty tasty. The general rule is the longer it’s cured, the better it’ll taste. 

The Gran Reserva and Reserva varieties are cured for 15 and 7 months, so the taste and aromas will be richer.

With the bodega or cava variety, the standard curing process is nine months but because this is not always mentioned in the labelling, there’s the possibility that it could be excessively raw.

Spain exported more than 53,500 tonnes of cured ham overseas in 2021, with Asia and China in particular its most promising market. Photo: Cristina Quicler/AFP

The external appearance of jamón ibérico

A lot of Spaniards believe the colour of the leg’s hoof gives away the quality of the ham whereas the experts say it’s rather the thinness and longer length of the lower extremity. Iberian pigs also have more worn-down hooves, as they spend their lives walking while rummaging around for acorns.

Therefore, a perfect looking hoof is generally a bad sign.

Furthermore, the leg’s skin should be wrinkled as this is an indication that it’s been properly cured and that the fat is close to the skin.

It should also be fairly homogenous in colour and appearance and not have obvious grooves or cracks which could indicate that it’s been excessively cured.

If you can, press your finger into the jamón and if it gives way easily it usually means that it’s well cured and of bellota quality.


The internal appearance of jamón ibérico

If you have the chance to see the cut on an Iberian ham, one sure sign of quality is for there to be visible white fat among the jamón, and for the meat to be truly red and shiny. 

A more maroon shade is usually an indication that the ham isn’t of great quality.

With de bellota (acorn) legs the fat tends to drip at room temperature, which is a good sign. 

Spanish Jamon Iberico (Iberian ham) is the name which is given exclusively to hams from the Iberian pig breed. Photo: Luis Fernando Talavera/Pixabay


Jamón or paletilla?

The pig’s back legs are called jamones whereas the paletillas or ‘paletas’ are the front ones, which include the pig’s ‘arms’ and shoulder blades.

Paletillas are generally considered to be slightly tastier and have a more intense flavour, but that’s not the only thing to keep in mind.

Jamones are bigger in general – from 6.5 to 10 kg – whilst paletillas are between 4.5 and 6.5 kg.

If only a small group of people will be tucking into the pata this Christmas, the paletilla can be a better option as the chances of it drying up or developing mould before you finish it are lower.

Then again, paletillas are considered harder to cut.

In La Alberca, near Salamanca, pigs are free to roam the streets until the day of their sacrifice, a tradition dating back to the Middle Ages. Photo: PHILIPPE DESMAZES/AFP

A useful tip

Try to find out if you can taste the variety of ‘jamón’ you’re looking to buy. This won’t necessarily be possible in all supermarkets but if the one you’re interested in is being sold in slices at the butcher’s, you could ask for a small piece to find out if you like it.


How much should I pay for a leg of ‘jamón ibérico’?

According to Spanish food website Gastroactivity, for 100 percent acorn-fed ‘ibéricos’ (black seal), the average price is between €323 and €590. 

For 50 percent ibericos which are fed acorns (red seal), the prices go from €281 to €299 on average.

For 50 percent ibéricos that have eaten in pastures (green seal), you can expect to pay €211 to €255.

And finally, for Iberian pigs that have been fed pig feed (white seal) that includes cereals and legumes, you’ll pay anything from €117 to €230. 

Remember that you can always buy a smaller paleta to pay less. For jamón serrano or other legs from non-Iberian pigs, it's perfectly possible to pay under €100, even for the top category - Gran Reserva

How do I get a really good deal?

The experts' advice is to cut out the middlemen and buy directly from 'jamón' producers in places like Ávila, Teruel or Granada. 

That may mean that you don't get to see the leg before you buy it, but you can expect to save 10 or more percent on your purchase compared to buying it in a shop or supermarket. 



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