Why Spain’s Catalonia celebrates Christmas with someone having a poo

No-one, from the Queen of England to climate activist Greta Thunberg, is safe from being immortalised as a defecating figurine used to decorate nativity scenes. Welcome to the bizarre world of Catalonia’s Christmas ‘crappers’.

Greta Thunberg, Queen Elizabeth of England, William Shakespeare and a Squid Game caganer
Greta Thunberg, Queen Elizabeth of England, William Shakespeare and a Squid Game character are just some of the popular public figures immortalised taking a dump. Photo: Lluis Gené/AFP

Visit any Catalan home at Christmas and you may well find yourself lost as you gaze into the nativity scene or Belén

Joseph and Mary will be in pride of place around the manger next to baby Jesus, the three Kings will likely be in attendance too, along with a group of shepherds and a set of traditional farmyard animals.

But look closer and you will spot a figure squatting with his or her pants down, bare bottom raised over a little brown pile of poo – glance up at the face and chances are it’s a face you recognise.

This is el caganer, which can be roughly translated as ‘the crapper’, and believe it or not they’ve become big business for artisans in the northeastern region. 

Photo: AFP

But before we delve into the international success of these miniature excreters, let’s ask the question you may be wondering – who came up with the idea for the caganer (crapper)?

Well, nobody really knows who the caganer’s inventor was, but historians believe the tradition could date back anywhere from the 18th century to the 14th century. 

What seems clear is that the first depiction was not as a figurine in a nativity scene but rather in two dimensions on marble, tile or stone. 

Some historians say it had religious connotations from the start, others that it was meant to symbolise daily occurrences in life, but what seems clear is that the caganer’s origins are Catalan and have formed part of local folklore for a long time. 

Interestingly, these pinkie-sized defecators are also popular in the Valencia region, Murcia, Naples and Portugal.

Caganers representing the independence struggle have surged in popularity. Photo: AFP

Traditional caganers are made from clay, fired in a kiln and then hand-painted. The classic figurines depict a pipe-smoking shepherd with a red Barretina hat, white shirt and black trousers, traditional wear in rural Catalonia back in the day.

When exactly they started forming part of the nativity scenes that decorate many homes in Catalonia is unknown.


But what historians do agree with is that the defecating figure perched behind Mary and Joseph is said to symbolise fertilisation, as well as bringing luck and prosperity for the year ahead.

That seems to have worked as Catalonia’s Christmas crappers are sticking around for good and making a name for themselves abroad.

We are not amused! Not even the Queen is taboo. Photo: AFP

Some families like to use the same figure year after year, often a character that has been passed down through the generations, and quite likely the traditional Catalan figure of a young peasant.

But as the caganer has evolved into a huge industry, all sorts are now produced, both in design and material.

There is a growing trend to purchase a new figure each year – a movements that is proving profitable for a handful of artisans who produce the figures each year.

Modern crappers represent public figures of the moment, from politicians to sporting heroes. 

The real presidental race (to the toilet) between Trump and Biden. Photo: Lluis Gené/AFP

Cartoon characters, literary figures, film icons can all be found on the shelves of stalls selling caganers.

No-one is above the cheeky satire that sees celebrities bare their bottoms and perform a call of nature from the late George Michael to Pope Francis.

Politicians are often favourites. Not surprisingly, the Donald Trump figure has been a best-seller for the last few years but was beaten at the top of the ‘crapping charts’ last Christmas by Spain’s chief pandemic spokesperson Fernando Simón.

Caganer figure of Madrid’s divisive regional president Isabel Díaz Ayuso. Photo: AFP

New highly-awaited figures this year include Spanish politicians Isabel Díaz Ayuso, the outspoken president of Madrid, and Pere Aragonès, the regional leader of Catalonia.

UK readers may want to buy a caganer of British Prime Minister Boris Johnson to perhaps draw a parallel between his words and his toilet habits. 

British Prime Minister Boris Johnson looking uncomfortable. Photo: AFP

Climate activist Greta Thunberg will also be ‘fertilising’ nativity scenes with her own carbon-free emissions, along with Spanish singer Rosalía and her very practical outfit.

Caganer figure of climate activist Greta Thunberg. Photo: AFP
The list of public figures and characters portrayed as nature calls runs into the hundreds, with official supplier boasting at least 500 different figurines. 

Although some devout Christians may question if this tradition is inappropriate, it’s very much here to stay. 

As for whether it’s more of an honour or a disgrace to be turned into caganer, it’s fair to say that it’s more light-hearted fun than mockery.

If anything, it’s proof that you’ve made it into the ‘poo-blic’ eye. 

Spanish singer Rosalía in a very practical outfit. Photo: AFP

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Rampant branch closures and job cuts help Spain’s banks post huge earnings

Spain’s biggest banks this week reported huge profits in 2021 and cheered their return to recovery post-Covid, but ruthless cost-cutting in the form of thousands of layoffs, hundreds of branch closures and the removal of many ATMs have left customers in Spain suffering, in this latest example of ‘Capitalismo 2.0’. 

A man withdraws cash from a Santander branch in Madrid.
More than 3,500 Santander workers lost their jobs in Spain in 2021 and a further 2,000 more employees working for Santander across Europe were also laid off. Photo: PHILIPPE DESMAZES / AFP

Spanish banking giant Santander on Wednesday said it has bounced back from the pandemic as it returned to profit last year, beating analyst expectations and exceeding its pre-COVID earnings.

Likewise, Spain’s second-largest bank BBVA said on Thursday that it saw a strong rebound in 2021 following the Covid crisis, tripling its net profits thanks to a recovery in business activity.

It’s a similar story for Unicaja (€137 million profit in 2021), Caixabank (€5.2 billion profit thanks to merge with Bankia), Sabadell (€530 million profit last year), Abanca (€323 million profit) and all of Spain’s other main banks.

This may be promising news for Spain’s banking sector, but their profits have come at a cost for many of their employees and customers. 

In 2021, 19,000 bank employees lost their jobs, almost all through state-approved ERE layoffs, meant for companies struggling financially.

BBVA employees protest against layoffs in May 2021 in Madrid. Spain’s second-largest bank BBVA is looking to shed 3,800 jobs, affecting 16 percent of its staff, in a move denounced by unions as “scandalous”. (Photo by GABRIEL BOUYS / AFP)

Around 11 percent of bank branches in Spain have also been closed down in 2021 as part of Spanish banks’ attempts to cut costs, even though they’ve agreed to pay just under €5 billion in compensation.

Rampant branch closures have in turn resulted in 2,200 ATMs being removed since the Covid-19 pandemic began, even though the use of cajeros automáticos went up by 20 percent in 2021.

There are now 48,300 ATMs in Spain, levels not seen since 2001.


Apart from losses caused by the coronavirus crisis, Spain’s financial institutions have justified the lay-offs, branch closures and ATM removals under the premise that there was already a shift to online banking taking place among customers. 

But the problem has been around for longer in a country with stark population differences between the cities and so-called ‘Empty Spain’, with rural communities and elderly people bearing the brunt of it. 


Caixabank laid off almost 6,500 workers in the first sixth months of 2021. Photo: ANDER GILLENEA/AFP

Just this month, a 78-year-old Valencian man has than collected 400,000+ signatures in an online petition calling for Spanish banks to offer face-to-face customer service that’s “humane” to elderly people, spurring the Bank of Spain and even Spain’s Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez to publicly say they would address the problem.

READ MORE: ‘I’m old, not stupid’ – How one Spanish senior is demanding face-to-face bank service

It’s worth noting that between 2008 and 2019, Spain had the highest number of branch closures and bank job cuts in Europe, with 48 percent of its branches shuttered compared with a bloc-wide average of 31 percent.

Below is more detailed information on how Santander and BBVA, Spain’s two biggest banks, have reported their huge profits in 2021.


Driven by a strong performance in the United States and Britain, the bank booked a net profit of €8.1 billion in 2021, close to a 12-year high. 

It was a huge improvement from 2020 when the pandemic hit and the bank suffered a net loss of €8.7 billion after it was forced to write down the value of several of its branches, particularly in the UK. It was also higher than 2019, when the bank posted a net profit of €6.5 billion.

Analysts from FactSet were expecting profits of €7.9 billion. 

“Our 2021 results demonstrate once again the value of our scale and presence across both developed and developing markets, with attributable profit 25 per cent higher than pre-COVID levels in 2019,” said chief executive Ana Botin in a statement.

Net banking income, the equivalent to turnover, also increased, reaching €33.4 billion, compared to €31.9 billion in 2020. This dynamic was made possible by a strong increase in customer numbers, with the group now counting almost 153 million customers worldwide. 

“We have added five million new customers in the last 12 months alone,” said Botin.

Santander performed particularly well in Europe and North America, with profits doubling in constant euros compared to 2020. In the UK, where Santander has a strong presence, current profit even “quadrupled” over the same period to €1.6 billion.

Last year’s net loss was the first in Banco Santander’s history, after having to revise downwards the value of several of its subsidiaries, notably in the UK, because of COVID.

The banking giant, which cut nearly 3,500 jobs at the end of 2020, in September announced an interim shareholder payout of €1.7 billion for its 2021 results. “In the coming weeks, we will announce additional compensation linked to the 2021 results,” it said.


The group, which mainly operates in Spain but also in Latin America, Mexico and Turkey, posted profits of €4.65 billion ($5.25 billion), up from €1.3 billion a year earlier.

The result, which followed a solid fourth quarter with profits of €1.34 billion, was higher than expected, with FactSet analysts expecting a figure of €4.32 billion .

Excluding non-recurring items, such as the outcome of a restructuring plan launched last year, it generated profits of 5.07 billion euros in what was the highest figure “in 10 years”, the bank said in a statement.

In 2020, the Spanish bank saw its net profit tumble 63 percent as a result of asset depreciation and provisions taken against an increase in bad loans due to the economic fallout of the virus crisis.

“The economic recovery over the past year has brought with it a marked upturn in banking activity, mainly in the loan portfolio,” the bank explained, pointing to a reduction of the provisions put in place because of Covid.

In 2021, BBVA added a “record” 8.7 million new customers, largely due to the growth of its online activities. It now has 81.7 million customers worldwide.

The group’s net interest margins also rose 6.1 percent year-on-year to €14.7 billion, said the bank, which is undergoing a cost-cutting drive.

So far, it has axed 2,935 jobs and closed down 480 branches as the banking sector undergoes increasing digitalisation and fewer and fewer transactions are carried out over the counter.

At the end of 2020, BBVA sold its US unit to PNC Financial Services for nearly 10 billion euros and decided to reinvest some of the funds in the Turkish market.

In November, it launched a bid to take full control of its Turkish lending subsidiary Garanti, offering €2.25 billion ($2.6 billion) to buy the 50.15 percent stake it does not yet own.

The deal should be finalised in the first quarter of 2022.