Illegal workers in southern Spain: unwanted but indispensable

In southern Spain, the far-right party Vox has drawn farmers' votes with a pledge to deport illegal workers.

Illegal workers in southern Spain: unwanted but indispensable
A migrant farm worker cycles throgh the sea of plastic greenhouses in El Ejido.. All photos by Jorge Guerrero / AFP

“But I don't know what they would do without us,” an African man remarked as he left a greenhouse in El Ejido.   

In this part of the sprawling region of Andalucia dubbed the “sea of plastic”, shimmering greenhouses lie side by side for miles on end.   

This is where Vox got its best results in recent local elections that have led to it sitting in a regional parliament for the first time in modern Spanish history.

READ ALSO: Everything you need to know about VOX

And while it did not get enough votes to govern, the support of 12 Vox lawmakers will allow a conservative-liberal coalition to take power in Andalucia when it is sworn in on Wednesday.

One of the mainstays of the far-right party's programme is a call for illegal immigrants to be denounced and deported.   

But in this area of southeastern Spain, dubbed “Europe's vegetable garden”, foreign workers are an integral part of the ultra-intensive farming that the regional economy depends on.

Riding his bicycle along roads lined with greenhouses, Issa Guebre, 24, says he is paid 36 euros ($40) per day to grow melons.   

He arrived last year from Burkina Faso after climbing the tall fence that separates the Spanish overseas territory of Melilla from Morocco.   

Guebre says his boss “has never asked” him for any identity documents and that he has never seen a work inspector.

50 degrees

Asked about Vox's call to deport all illegal workers, he says: “I don't know how they would cope here without us Africans.”   

“In the summer it's so hot in the greenhouses at 50 degrees (120 degrees F) that even the owner doesn't come in.”   

A Senegalese man who lives in Andalucia, Serigne Mamadou Keinde Diassaka, recently drew attention when he published on Facebook a video seen more than 600,000 times.

Responding to Vox at six in the morning in a vineyard in Albacete, he said: “Here's what we immigrants do: work.”   

In El Ejido, population 89,000, Vox got 29.51 percent of the votes, ahead of the conservative Popular Party (PP) that has governed the town for 28 years.   

Vox could even win municipal elections in May, polls show.   

Beyond immigration, the typical Vox voter is outraged by the independence drive in northeastern Catalonia or by the recent feminist movement.   

A slogan painted in red on a greenhouse illustrates the anger directed at Spain's Socialist prime minister who wants to exhume the remains of dictator Francisco Franco from his mausoleum near Madrid.

“Pedro Sanchez, bastard! Franco isn't the problem, you're the problem. Long live the Civil Guard (police force). Spain is a nation.”

'Recruiting those who show up' 

At the Las Chozas bar, farmers picking at tapas or playing table football say “many voted for Vox” and “illegal workers should go.”   

Andres Fernandez, 44, owns a vast terrain of greenhouses.   

He says immigrants “ask for more than they should because they come from a third-world country but don't want to follow the rules here.”   

He points for instance to those who won't eat pork at the cantine.   

But he also admits that “without immigrants here, you can't survive.”   

“When you have to harvest 70,000 kilos of watermelons in 24 hours, you hire those who show up,” says Salvador, a 64-year-old who refused to give his surname, acknowledging he sometimes hires illegal workers.

Smoking a cigarillo, the land owner, his face deeply lined, nevertheless said he is “sensitive to Vox's discourse.”   

According to Jose Cueva of the SOC farm workers union, “20 to 30 percent of (farm) workers are illegal” in the province of Almeria, one of eight in Andalusia. 

Undocumented migrants gather in 'Almericien' shantytown in El Ejido, Almeria province. Photo: AFP

In El Ejido, employers gather illegal workers early in the morning “with total impunity” next to the police station, he says.   

“They would be shooting themselves in the foot: the deportation of illegal immigrants would create a big shortfall in workers,” he adds.   

Pointing to the farmers' “contradictions,” he believes they “need these workers” as their low-cost production “wouldn't be possible without widespread precarity.”

“El Ejido's former PP mayor Juan Enciso had in 2000 summed up their thinking by saying they needed immigrants by day but that they should disappear at night.”

By AFP's Laurence Boutreux in El Ejido



How the EU aims to reform border-free Schengen area

European countries agreed on Thursday to push towards a long-stalled reform of the bloc's migration system, urging tighter control of external borders and better burden-sharing when it comes to asylum-seekers.

How the EU aims to reform border-free Schengen area
European interior ministers met in the northern French city of tourcoing, where president Emmanuel Macron gave a speech. Photo: Yoat Valat/AFP

The EU home affairs commissioner Ylva Johansson, speaking after a meeting of European interior ministers, said she welcomed what she saw as new momentum on the issue.

In a reflection of the deep-rooted divisions on the issue, France’s Interior Minister Gérald Darmanin – whose country holds the rotating EU presidency – said the process would be “gradual”, and welcomed what he said was unanimous backing.

EU countries backed a proposal from French President Emmanuel Macron to create a council guiding policy in the Schengen area, the passport-free zone used by most EU countries and some affiliated nations such as Switzerland and Norway.

Schengen council

Speaking before the meeting, Macron said the “Schengen Council” would evaluate how the area was working but would also take joint decisions and facilitate coordination in times of crisis.

“This council can become the face of a strong, protective Europe that is comfortable with controlling its borders and therefore its destiny,” he said.

The first meeting is scheduled to take place on March 3rd in Brussels.

A statement released after the meeting said: “On this occasion, they will establish a set of indicators allowing for real time evaluation of the situation at our borders, and, with an aim to be able to respond to any difficulty, will continue their discussions on implementing new tools for solidarity at the external borders.”

Step by step

The statement also confirmed EU countries agreed to take a step-by-step approach on plans for reforming the EU’s asylum rules.

“The ministers also discussed the issues of asylum and immigration,” it read.

“They expressed their support for the phased approach, step by step, put forward by the French Presidency to make headway on these complex negotiations.

“On this basis, the Council will work over the coming weeks to define a first step of the reform of the European immigration and asylum system, which will fully respect the balance between the requirements of responsibility and solidarity.”

A planned overhaul of EU migration policy has so far foundered on the refusal of countries such as the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia to accept a sharing out of asylum-seekers across the bloc.

That forces countries on the EU’s outer southern rim – Italy, Greece, Malta and Spain – to take responsibility for handling irregular migrants, many of whom are intent on making their way to Europe’s wealthier northern nations.

France is pushing for member states to commit to reinforcing the EU’s external borders by recording the details of every foreign arrival and improving vetting procedures.

It also wants recalcitrant EU countries to financially help out the ones on the frontline of migration flows if they do not take in asylum-seekers themselves.

Johansson was critical of the fact that, last year, “45,000 irregular arrivals” were not entered into the common Eurodac database containing the fingerprints of migrants and asylum-seekers.

Earlier, German Interior Minister Nancy Faeser suggested her country, France and others could form a “coalition of the willing” to take in asylum-seekers even if no bloc-wide agreement was struck to share them across member states.

She noted that Macron spoke of a dozen countries in that grouping, but added that was probably “very optimistic”.

Luxembourg’s foreign minister, Jean Asselborn, hailed what he said was “a less negative atmosphere” in Thursday’s meeting compared to previous talks.

But he cautioned that “we cannot let a few countries do their EU duty… while others look away”.

France is now working on reconciling positions with the aim of presenting propositions at a March 3rd meeting on European affairs.