The eventful day at the polls across Catalonia was covered either with a focus on police brutality against a people trying to exercise a democratic right, or by blaming Catalans for stirring up trouble.
Here's a look at how different newspapers in Spain covered the unfolding crisis in Catalonia.
Left-leaning El País led with: “The government impedes the illegal referendum by force.”
Some pro-Madrid papers accused the Catalan regional police of disobeying orders after clashes between federal and regional police.
Right-wing ABC chose to run a front page picture of one such clash, captioned: “The treachery of the Mossos.”
It also ran a story titled: “A failed referendum that leaves Spain damaged.”
Meanwhile conservative El Mundo reported that Catalan leader Carles Puigdemont “Will proclaim independence ‘within days',” and also ran a story with the headline: “The Mossos betrays the state.”
La Razon took the view: “Firmness in the face of a coup”.
Catalan front pages mostly featured images of riot police battling with protesters.
Periodico de Catalunya headlined: “Insurrection” and “Intolerable repression” with a photo of riot police clutching at a screaming man.
— Jordi Turull i Negre (@jorditurull) October 2, 2017
The Catalan language El Punt Avui ran an image of police beating up citizens with the caption: “2017.” And when the paper was unfolded it revealed a similar image dating from the uncertain period of transition in the aftermath of the death of dictator General Francisco Franco.
La Vanguardia led with: “The government represses 1-0”
Ara juxtaposed two powerful images beneath the headline “Shame and Dignity”; one of protesters standing up to police, and another of an elderly woman with a raised fist.
Even the sports press was dominated by Catalan politics.
Marca referenced the fact that Sunday's Barça game was played behind closed doors. “There is no one to applaud this Barça team,” it headlined, with a picture of FC Barcelona posing in Catalan national colors.