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Women lose out as gender pay gap widens

Spain's gender pay gap is increasing, with women on average earning 19.3 percent less than men and rarely getting promoted above them, figures released on Thursday show.

The gender pay gap in Spain has widened over five years, increasing by 3.2 percent in 2013, up from 16.1 percent in 2008, EU statistics agency Eurostat said on Thursday.

The new data will be an embarrassment for Spain ahead of International Women's Day on Sunday.

It takes Spain above the EU average of 16.4 percent and goes against the European trend towards greater equality.

Germany registered one of the worst pay gaps, which fell slightly to 21.6 percent in 2013, while the figure also topped 20 percent in Estonia, Austria and the Czech Republic.

The best place in Europe for working women is Slovenia, with a 3.2 percent gap, but no EU country has achieved full gender pay equality.

The disparity in hiring in Spain was below the EU average of 11.6 percent with some 53.8 percent of women employed compared to 62.4 percent of men.

But women in Spain are less likely to have full-time jobs than men, with 25 percent of working women having a part-time position compared to 7.5 percent of men.

Female employees also see themselves in lower-level jobs, with women holding 31 percent of managerial positions despite taking 46 percent of total employment.

Times have changed since Spain’s transition to democracy on the death of fascist dictator General Francisco Franco and women with women taking a lead in politics.

When socialist prime minister, Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero swept to power in 2004, he insisted he was “a feminist” and by the time he left office eight years later he had installed nine women in a cabinet of 17.

Mariano Rajoy currently has only four women appointed in a cabinet of 13.

Although there has yet to be a Spanish prime minister, the next monarch of Spain will undoubtedly be a Queen: The heir to the throne is the nine-year-old Infanta Leonor.

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Do I have to take most of my annual leave in August in Spain?

Many Spanish companies still expect their workers to take their holidays at specific times of the year, primarily in August, right in the height of summer when many hotels are fully booked. So what are your rights, are you obliged to take your vacation in one particular month?

Do I have to take most of my annual leave in August in Spain?

While it’s your right as an employee to be able to take holiday days, do you have to take them when your company wants you to take them, or are you able to choose and have more flexibility?

Despite August being one of the hottest months in Spain and the one month of the year when many official companies and offices shut up shop, not everyone necessarily wants to take their break at the same time as everyone else.

Taking your holidays in August means less availability in hotels, overcrowding and more expensive transport and accommodation. If you don’t have children who are off from school during the summer months, then you may wish to take your vacation days at another time of the year, when it’s less busy and cheaper.

To answer the question it’s important to know the details about what the law says about how paid time off is taken, requested, imposed, or granted.

What laws or regulations dictate the rules about paid holiday time?

There are three different sets of rules and regulations, which are responsible for regulating the laws on vacation time in Spain. 

Firstly, you need to look at the Spanish Workers’ Statute, which includes rights, duties and obligations applicable to all salaried workers in Spain.

Secondly, you need to be aware of the collective sector and/or company agreements, which may dictate the rules for a particular industry for example.

Thirdly, you need to look at the contract, which you signed with your employer when you started working for them. This sets out your individual circumstances and the rules you must abide by.   

Workers Statute

As a general rule, all employees are subject to the Workers’ Statute. Holidays are part of this and are the subject of article 38. These conditions can never be contradicted by individual companies and are set as a guaranteed minimum. 

The minimum number of holidays in Spain is 30 calendar days per year. This equals two and a half days per month worked, in the case of temporary contracts. The statute states that vacations must be taken between January 1st and December 31st in separate periods, but one of them must be for at least two weeks. They are always paid and cannot be exchanged for financial compensation.

The period when you can take them is set by a common agreement between the employer and the worker, in accordance with what is established in the collective agreements on annual vacation planning. If there is disagreement, the social jurisdiction is resorted to.

At a minimum, the company must offer vacation days at least two months before the beginning of the holiday period, so that the employee has time to organise and book.   

When the planned time to take vacations coincides with a temporary disability, pregnancy, or childbirth, you have the right to enjoy the vacations at another time, even after the calendar year is over.

Collective agreements on vacations  

Your sector’s collective agreements may also help to answer this question. These aim to improve upon the basic and general rights that are included in the Workers’ Statute. They seek to adapt the rules to each type of industry or company. They could, for example, set out extra vacation days, which are greater than the standard 30 calendar days. 

You will need to find out what your specific sector or company’s collective agreement is. There is a possibility that your sector or company has mandatory summer vacations for the month of August and in that case, you can choose vacation dates, but only within this month.

Your work contract 

Lastly, you will need to consult your individual contract which you signed with the company when you were hired.  As well as the minimum conditions set out in the Workers’ Statute, your contract sets out your particular agreement with your employer in terms of holiday duration, the work calendar and other details.

Therefore, you should state in your contract whether you have to take your holidays during August, or if you’re free to take them at other times of the year.

If after consulting these three sets of regulations and there are still in doubt or in disagreement with your company about vacations, such as having to take them during the month of August, you should consult a lawyer specialising in labor law. They should be able to give you an answer specific to your situation.  

Can I appeal or disagree and what are the consequences? 

To appeal or express disagreement with what is proposed by the company, there is a period of 20 business days from when the vacation schedule is sent out, after which time you don’t have the right to show that you disagree.  

Companies can proceed to disciplinary dismissals due to abandonment of the job if you decide to take vacations that have not been granted or agreed upon with your employer. To avoid this type of problem, always make sure you have a record in writing of your request for vacation time and subsequent approval by the company.

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